Bhupalam (pronounced bhupalam) is a ragam in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is a pentatonic scale (audava ragam or owdava ragam). It is a janya ragam (derived scale), as it does not have all the seven swaras (musical notes). It is also written as Bhoopalam.It is considered an auspicious scale and a morning ragam. In Tamil music, this scale is called Puranirmai pann and some thevarams are set to this scale. This ragam is played in the mornings before opening the sanctum-sanctorum of temples, using nadaswaram. It is also used for chanting slokas, folks songs, Kathakali music and other rituals. The equivalent scale in Hindustani music is Bhupal Todi.
Structure and Lakshana
Bhupalam is a symmetric ragam that does not contain madhyamam or nishadham. It is a symmetric pentatonic scale (audava-audava ragam in Carnatic music classification – audava meaning 'of 5'). Its ascending and descending scale (aroha?a-avaroha?a structure) is as follows:
aroha?a : S R1 G2 P D1 Savaroha?a : S D1 P G2 R1 S
The notes used in this scale are shadjam, shuddha rishabham, sadharna gandharam, panchamam and shuddha dhaivatham, as per Carnatic music notation and terms for the swaras. Bhupalam is considered a janya ragam of Hanumatodi, the 8th Melakarta ragam, though it can be derived from 5 other melakarta ragams by dropping both the madhyamam and nishadham.
Bhupalam ragam lends itself for good elaboration and has a few compositions in both classical music and film music. Here are some popular songs composed in Bhupalam.Sadhu vibhatam (varnam) and other kritis, Nijadasanam prati and Samajendra composed by Swati TirunalAnnai Janaki by Arunachala KaviSadachaleshwaram by Muthuswami Dikshitar